William James on Habit and Association
(1) typed, double-spaced
(2) do not quote extremely long passages
(3) no large fonts, narrow margins, or excessive spacings between every paragraph to make your paper longer
(4) do not simply reference Plato’s text or other materials and then ignore them and explain your own idea; rather, compare and contrast your own view with the views expressed in Plato or whatever text relates to your paper
(5) read your paper to yourself at least once before you submit it
(6) obviously, no forms of plagiarism or other violations of academic integrity are acceptable at all in any way whatsoever; as mentioned on the syllabus, the consequences of plagiarism are immediate failure of the course as a whole; there are no excuses
(7) you do not need to start your paper with an explosive sentence that embraces the entire scope of the universe, e.g. “Since the dawn of civilization human beings have wondered about the mind.”
(8) be honest; in particular, do not praise Plato or Socrates as great philosophers simply because you’re in a philosophy class, because they are reputed to be wise, or because you think that I think they are wise. On the other hand, do not simply deny what they say either. If you disagree, give a sensible presentation of what Socrates / Plato may intend to say, and then argue against it.
(9) if you attribute an idea to Socrates, or some other author, cite the passage in the book where this idea is expressed; when citing the Republic it is best to cite the marginal page numbers alongside the text and not the ordinary page numbers at the upper corners of the pages
(10) include pages numbers Our thoughts, emotional responses, bodily movements, and patterns of behavior are mostly products of habit. Once a certain thought has arisen, been entertained, and accepted as one’s own, power is added to the disposition in our minds for similar thoughts to arise in the future. The same is true of our emotional responses, bodily movements, and practical actions – all else being equal, occurrence precedes recurrence. As James states, “we are copiers of our past selves.” This means that the thoughts, emotional reactions, practical actions, and bodily movements we permit today will likely replicate themselves in our thoughts, emotions, actions, and movements of tomorrow. Our “intellectual habits” (that is, the habits that govern our dispositions for thinking and associating ideas with one another) are of critical importance in this regard. For these habits often dispose us to not recognize how our habits of all four types are developing and growing. This results in a sort of haphazard way in which our personal identities develop, and our “destinies” unfold – or fail to unfold. Discuss. In doing so concentrate on habit, association, and will as described by James.