Answer the following four (4) short answer questions:
The flow of blood through the heart and body is driven by contractions of the heart chambers. These contractions are activated by the cardiac conduction system.
Q1. Describe the components and conduction pathway of the cardiac conduction system of the heart. Relate the cardiac conduction system to the corresponding sequence of heart chamber contractions (10 marks) (400 words)
Q2. Trace the pathway of oxygen delivery to cells in the body (commencing at the alveoli until it reaches tissue cells) (5 marks) (200 words)
Q3. Describe one normal age-related change to the anatomy of the cardiovascular system in healthy elderly adults (over 65 years). Describe how this change affects the function of the cardiovascular system. (5 marks) (200 words)
Regular exercise provides benefits to maintaining the health and wellbeing of the cardiovascular system.
Q4. Describe one effect regular exercise has in maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system (5 marks) (200 words)
• Each question should be answered separately and not as an essay.
• At least one of the following journal article(s) must be used in this assessment:
Fleg, J. L., & Strait, J. (2012). Age-associated changes in cardiovascular structure and function: A fertile milieu for future disease. Heart Failure Reviews 17(4), 545-554.
Bolton, E., & Chakravarthi, R. (2011). The ageing cardiovascular system. Reviews of Clinical Gerontology 21(2), 99-109.
• Uses recent (within 5 years) reputable sources from a range of reliable sources.
• A maximum of two (2) relevant, credible internet sources may be used.
• All answers must include in-text references and a reference list must be included at the end of the assessment.
• Reference style used will be the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style guide 6th edition.
Q1. Accurately and thoroughly describes the 5 components of the cardiac conduction system, including the location and branching in the heart. Traces the conduction pathway through the heart accurately. Accurately and thoroughly relates the parts of the cardiac conduction system with corresponding heart chamber contractions and relaxation as well as the movement of blood through the heart chambers.
Q2. Accurately and thoroughly traces the pathway of oxygen from alveoli to tissue cells, including the direction oxygen moves during internal and external respiration and reference to partial pressures.
Q3. Accurately and thoroughly describes one structural change ageing has on the cardiovascular system of a healthy elderly adult. Accurately and thoroughly relates this structural change to a change in cardiovascular system function.
Q4. Accurately and thoroughly describes one benefit regular exercise has on the cardiovascular system of a healthy individual. Correctly relates this benefit to maintaining healthy cardiovascular system function.