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risk assessment

Category: Essay Writing

You should provide an evaluation of how risk are assessed who is involved, what methods are used, and the impact on service delivery.
LO1: Critically consider issues underlying the concept of risk in modern society
LO2: Evaluate how the concept of risk has an impact on policy and practice in a selected area from health, education, or social welfare
LO3: Evaluate risk assessment in a selected area from health, education or social welfare.
I have done the Introduction which has been given the okay by lecturer, so could you carry on from that and it is also from a Scottish perspective, please.

An evaluation of risk assessment methods used by primary schools in Scotland for the implementation of outdoor activities

Outdoor activities have been popular within Scottish schools since the 1970’s and Scotland is said to be one of the first countries to introduce outdoor education into its curriculum (Black, 2013). However, according to Black (2010), there is said to be a decline in opportunities for outdoor activities due to various issues and barriers. The first is concerns with health and safety issues of children on school trips and according to the Health and Safety Executive (2011), there are misunderstandings from teachers who feel they will be held liable if there is an accident on a school trip. The second issue is ‘bureaucracy’ which is often blamed for the decline in school trips (Barton 2006). The perceived risks in school trips can vary depending on what activity is being done. For example; loss of pupil or staff, transportation, weather conditions, drowning, falling, equipment failure and so on. With regards to this Barton (2006) mentions that there are different levels of risk where a competent teacher would be able to make the decision whether there is a high risk, moderate, or low level of risk. Clearly, this is where risk assessment steps into action and the systems in place to ensure that everything runs smoothly and the correct procedures are carried out by properly trained staff. Firstly, this essay will consider the concept of risk in modern society and how some sociologist have suggested that societies obsession with risk has led to a culture of fear of blame (Anthony Giddens). Secondly, the essay will evaluate how risk assessment of school trips are assessed by three levels; Generic activity risk assessment, Excursion/site specific risk assessments and Ongoing/dynamic risk assessment. Finally, the essay will consider the impact Governments policy has on outdoor school activities and the responsibilities of all those involved in risk assessment and how this influences school trips and whether health and safety is valued above everything else.

References

Barton, B (2007) Safety, Risk and adventure in outdoor activities. London, Sage.

Gill, T (2007) No Fear: Growing up in a risk averse society. London: CalousteGulbenkian Foundation.
Health and Safety Executive (2011) School Trips and Outdoor Learning Activities. Available from [online]http://www.hse.gov.uk/services/education/school-trips.pdf
Accessed

Black, R 2013, ‘Delivering formal outdoor learning in protected areas: a case study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves’, International Research In Geographical & Environmental Education, 22, 1, pp. 4-22, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 March 2015.

A Good Practice Guide: Health and Safety on Educational Excursions (Scottish Government, 2005 )http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/education/hseem-02.asp
The dilemmas are noted in the document ‘Managing Risk in Play Provision: A Position Statement’ (Play England, 2002).http://www.playengland.org.uk/media/172644/managing-risk-in-play-provision.pdf

National Children’s Bureau (2012) , ‘Managing Risk in Play Provision: implementation guide 2nd edition. http://www.playengland.org.uk/media/172644/managing-risk-in-play-provision.pdf

National Children’s Bureau (2012) , ‘Managing Risk in Play Provision: implementation guide 2nd edition. http://www.playengland.org.uk/media/172644/managing-risk-in-play-provision.pdf

Scottish Government (2004). Health and Safety on Educational Excursions. Available from: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/30859/0023651.pdf

Scottish Government, (2004) A Good Practice Guide, Health and Safety on Educational Excursions : supplement 1[online] http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/30859/0023648.pdf

Education Scotland. (2010). Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning. Available from:

http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/Images/cfeOutdoorLearningfinal_tcm4-596061.pdf

QA Research. (2008). Out of School Trips. Available from: http://www.nationalforest.org/document/visitor/Industry/Out_of_school_trips_national_research_findings.pdf Accessed 13/5/14

Gill, T. (2010) Nothing Ventured: Balancing Risks and Benefits in the Outdoors. [online]. England: English Outdoor Council. Available from http://www.englishoutdoorcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/Nothing-Ventured.pdf

Education Scotland (2013) Planning outdoor learning [online] http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/learningteachingandassessment/approaches/outdoorlearning/healthandsafety/guides/planning.asp#RA
Going Out There (2013) Scottish Framework for Safe Practice in Off-site Visits Available online at: http://www.goingoutthere.co.uk/

Health and Safety Executive (2011) School Trips Available online at: www.hse.gov.uk/services/education/school-trips.pdf

Health and Safety Executive (2011) School Trips and Outdoor Learning Activities: Tackling the Health and Safety Myths: http://www.hse.gov.uk/services/education/school-trips.pdf

Health and Safety Executive (2012) Promoting a Balanced Approach [online]. Available from: <http://www.hse.gov.uk/entertainment/childrens-play-july-2012.pdf>

Health and Safety Executive (2014) Five Steps to Risk Assessment [online]. Available from: <http://www.hse.gov.uk/risk/fivesteps.htm

Department of Education (2014) Health and safety: Advice on legal duties and powers for local authorities, school leaders, school staff and governing bodies [online]. London: The Stationery Office. Available from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/279429/DfE_Health_and_Safety_Advice_06_02_14.pdf

Learning and Teaching Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning [online]. Available from http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/Images/cfeOutdoorLearningfinal_tcm4-596061.pdf

Murray, R. and O’Brien, L. (2005) “Such Enthusiasm – a Joy to See”: An Evaluation of Forest Schools in England. [online] Surrey: Forest Research. Available from http://www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/ForestSchoolEnglandReport.pdf/$FILE/ForestSchoolEnglandReport.pdf

Niehues, A, Bundy, A, Broom, A, & Tranter, P 2015, ‘Parents’ Perceptions of Risk and the Influence on Children’s Everyday Activities’, Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 24, 3, pp. 809-820, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 23 March 2015