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Music
Lesson 1 - Origins of Jazz I
Lesson 1 - Origins of Jazz
The Combo Music and Musicians of the Pre-modern Era



Reading:  Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5

Listening: The first 23 songs in order in our Music Beyond The Textbook CD-1 (Maple Leaf Rag by Scott Joplin through Four or Five Times by Jimmy Noone's Apex Club Orchestra).  Also, in the Our Textbook CD-1 Listening Links for CD-1 that accompanies our textbook Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, listen to the entire African-American Retention's Sequence (Street Cries through Birdland);and the Dixie Jazz Band One-Step, Wolverine Blues, Singing the Blues, West End Blues, and You've Got To Be Modernistic. Students are to listen and follow along with each of the blue highlighted Listening Guide selections as found in our textbook. The detailed descriptions will allow the student to listen beyond their current level of comprehension. Read, listen, listen again, and enjoy!

Lesson 1 Objectives:
What is jazz?


What is jazz improvisation?


What are the origins of this art form?


What individual players and ensembles stand out as major contributors to jazz from 1917 to the early 1930's?


Students learn about the precursors and earliest contributors to the art of jazz.


Students begin: to understand the African-American experience, with its social, economic, and political challenges; to make connections between the musical past and the musical present; to develop a stronger knowledge and understanding of the basic elements of music as related to jazz.




Preparation:
Do the required reading and listening. Students should read all liner note and text-book descriptions that accompany the Gridley CD's.



Of special interest in our Music Beyond The Textbook CD-1 are the two different versions of Maple Leaf Rag.  One is pure ragtime featuring Scott Joplin, and the other is "stomp" style played by Jelly Roll Morton.  Listen to the "call and response" used between Bessie Smith and Louis Armstrong on St. Louis Blues. Students will listen for the contrapuntal "collective improvisation" as played by King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band on Dippermouth Blues, by Jelly Roll Morton's Red Hot Peppers on Black Bottom Stomp, and by Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five on Potato Head Blues. The amazing individual trumpet/cornet improvisations by Louis Armstrong on any of the Hot Five or Hot Seven recordings, as well as his vocal improvisations (scat singing) on Hotter Than That and West End Blues are not to be missed.

In the Our Textbook CD-1 Listening Links for CD-1, students need to check out James P. Johnson laying down that stride style piano (in the left hand-a low note followed by a chord, repeated over and over) on You've Got To Be Modernistic.



Lesson 1 Essay and Assessment Questions Preview
Please answer both Part A (Essay Questions) and Part B (Quiz) for this lesson.

LESSON 1 ESSAY QUESTIONS

11 points each

1. Our textbook lists contributions to jazz from both European and African musical traditions.  Name three from each continent.

2. What are the 4 ways that jazz listeners pay attention to a jazz performance?

3. Gridley discusses the social setting in which jazz emerged in the early 20th century (starting with "The Need for Live Music . . .").  Summarize the ideas presented in those paragraphs.

4. Name the instruments used in the Rhythm section of a typical New Orleans Jazz Combo (1917-1928).

5. Name the instruments in the Front Line of a typical New Orleans Jazz Combo. What is the function of each instrument - what do they each do to contribute to the collective improvisation that results?

6. Discuss the difference between a trumpet and a cornet.

Music

Lesson 1 – Origins of Jazz I
Lesson 1 – Origins of Jazz
The Combo Music and Musicians of the Pre-modern Era
Reading:  Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5
Listening: The first 23 songs in order in our Music Beyond The Textbook CD-1 (Maple Leaf Rag by Scott Joplin through Four or Five Times by Jimmy Noone's Apex Club Orchestra).  Also, in the Our Textbook CD-1 Listening Links for CD-1 that accompanies our textbook Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, listen to the entire African-American Retention's Sequence (Street Cries through Birdland);and the Dixie Jazz Band One-Step, Wolverine Blues, Singing the Blues, West End Blues, and You've Got To Be Modernistic. Students are to listen and follow along with each of the blue highlighted Listening Guide selections as found in our textbook. The detailed descriptions will allow the student to listen beyond their current level of comprehension. Read, listen, listen again, and enjoy!
Lesson 1 Objectives:
What is jazz?
What is jazz improvisation?
What are the origins of this art form?
What individual players and ensembles stand out as major contributors to jazz from 1917 to the early 1930's?
Students learn about the precursors and earliest contributors to the art of jazz.
Students begin: to understand the African-American experience, with its social, economic, and political challenges; to make connections between the musical past and the musical present; to develop a stronger knowledge and understanding of the basic elements of music as related to jazz.
Preparation:
Do the required reading and listening. Students should read all liner note and text-book descriptions that accompany the Gridley CD's.
Of special interest in our Music Beyond The Textbook CD-1 are the two different versions of Maple Leaf Rag.  One is pure ragtime featuring Scott Joplin, and the other is “stomp” style played by Jelly Roll Morton.  Listen to the “call and response” used between Bessie Smith and Louis Armstrong on St. Louis Blues. Students will listen for the contrapuntal “collective improvisation” as played by King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band on Dippermouth Blues, by Jelly Roll Morton's Red Hot Peppers on Black Bottom Stomp, and by Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five on Potato Head Blues. The amazing individual trumpet/cornet improvisations by Louis Armstrong on any of the Hot Five or Hot Seven recordings, as well as his vocal improvisations (scat singing) on Hotter Than That and West End Blues are not to be missed.
In the Our Textbook CD-1 Listening Links for CD-1, students need to check out James P. Johnson laying down that stride style piano (in the left hand-a low note followed by a chord, repeated over and over) on You've Got To Be Modernistic.
Lesson 1 Essay and Assessment Questions Preview
Please answer both Part A (Essay Questions) and Part B (Quiz) for this lesson.
LESSON 1 ESSAY QUESTIONS
11 points each
1. Our textbook lists contributions to jazz from both European and African musical traditions.  Name three from each continent.
2. What are the 4 ways that jazz listeners pay attention to a jazz performance?
3. Gridley discusses the social setting in which jazz emerged in the early 20th century (starting with “The Need for Live Music . . .”).  Summarize the ideas presented in those paragraphs.
4. Name the instruments used in the Rhythm section of a typical New Orleans Jazz Combo (1917-1928).
5. Name the instruments in the Front Line of a typical New Orleans Jazz Combo. What is the function of each instrument – what do they each do to contribute to the collective improvisation that results?
6. Discuss the difference between a trumpet and a cornet.
7. What are the musical gifts (list specific characteristics) of Louis Armstrong that make him so important in music history.
8.  Why are the drums not present in many of the oldest recordings of Jazz music?  What did the drummer play instead?
9. New Orleans, LA is the birthplace of Jazz Music.  Yet, no Jazz was ever recorded there until decades after the art form began–why is this so and where did these early Jazz musicians from New Orleans travel to get recorded?
10. The broad racial mix of people of New Orleans, LA at the turn of the 20th century (European-American, African-American, and Creoles) contributed greatly to the emergence of Jazz.  With diversity at its core, why did the first Jazz recording ever made and released in the United States as a “Jazz Record” feature The Original Dixieland Jazz Band–a group of all white musicians?
Part A – Students are reminded to click on the Lesson 1 Essay Questions Dropbox to provide their responses to these questions and submit them for grading.
PART B – Lesson 1 Assessment Questions
Question 1 Fill in the Blank (2 points)
Question: Persons of mixed blood living in downtown New Orleans during the 1800s were called __________ of color.
Question 2 True / False (2 points)
Question: Improvisation is found in both jazz and European musics.
True
False
Question 3 True / False (2 points)
Question: Chord progressions are common only in jazz music.
True
False
Question 4 True / False (2 points)
Question: Syncopation is found in both African music and jazz.
True
False
Question 5 True / False (2 points)
Question: Stop-time solo breaks are often used as springboards to solos.
True
False
Question 6 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: Sight reading music consists of:
A. playing by ear
B. playing by imagining how music looks
C. playing music correctly at first sight
D. reading music correctly after looking it over ahead of time
Question 7 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: Ragtime developed primarily from:
A. Afro-American blues singing
B. European march and Afro-American banjo tradition
C. Afro-American drum ensemble concept
D. formal European concert singing
Question 8 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: The name of the famous entertainment district in New Orleans that earned its nickname in 1892 was:
A. the French Quarter
B. The Tenderloin District
C. Pioneer Square
D. Storyville
Question 9 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: In the jazz world, the use of another player's ideas in constructing one's own improvisations is:
A. viewed as plagiarism
B. standard operating procedure
C. unlike the process of imitation in other arts
D. an unethical means for developing a style
Question 10 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: The improvising jazz soloist tries to be aware of editing his or her work and thinking ahead, as well as:
A. thinking about the chord changes
B. interacting with his accompanists
C. remembering what she/he has played so as not to duplicate himself
D. All of the above
Question 11 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: In jazz terminology, a chorus is:
A. a synonym for glee club
B. that segment of a solo which uses the entire chord progression
C. the playing through of an entire solo
D. twelve measures of a 32-bar A-A-B-A song form
Question 12 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: The Christmas carol “Deck the Halls” is an example of:
A. twelve-bar blues
B. trading eights
C. A-A-B-A form
D. trading fours
Question 13 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: New Orleans was ripe to be the birthplace of jazz because:
A. Wynton Marsalis was born there
B. the city had a tremendous amount of musical activity during the height of the brass band movement
C. slavery was practiced there longer than in other regions of the U.S.
D. slavery was abolished earlier there than in other regions of the U.S.
Question 14 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: The African-American music called the BLUES is thought most comprehensively to derive from:
A. church music, band music and syncopation
B. spirituals and field hollers
C. music that accompanied cake walks
D. European band music and African vocal music
Question 15 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: In twelve-bar blues, trading fours is easy because:
A. four measures constitutes half of each eight-bar section of the 32-bar form
B. the blues form consists of three, four-bar phrases
C. each chord lasts four bars
D. four measures constitutes the length of a chorus
Question 16 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: Jelly Roll Morton's recording group was called the:
A. Creole Jazz Band
B. Red Hot Peppers
C. Hot Five
D. Austin High Gang
Question 17 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: Why is the party atmosphere of New Orleans thought to have contributed significantly to the development of jazz?
A. prostitution has greater musical impact than religion does
B. happy people like jazz
C. it provided a lot of work for musicians
D. it made classical music less necessary
Question 18 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: The technique of plucking the strings of a musical instrument is termed:
A. arco
B. walking
C. pizzicato
D. broken time
Question 19 True / False (2 points)
Question: Louis Armstrong played the cornet and the trumpet.
True
False
Question 20 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: Stop-time solo breaks are when:
A. the band suddenly stops playing, and a soloist improvises alone
B. chords stop changing at the pace that had been set
C. the band no longer keeps time, either implicitly or explicitly
D. bands take a break from following preset chord progressions
Question 21 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: The drum set percussion instrument that snaps shut with a CHICK sound is called:
A. high-hat
B. bass drum pedal
C. wood block
D. ride cymbal with rivets
Question 22 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: “Swing” is a term that primarily indicates a:
A. well-tuned band sound
B. very exciting sound
C. rhythmic feeling
D. a hot timbre
Question 23 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: One important element in jazz swing feeling is the preponderance of:
A. blue notes
B. improvisations
C. syncopations
D. poorly timed phrases
Question 24 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: George Gershwin's “RHAPSODY IN BLUE” is __________ and has no __________.
A. improvised; swing feeling
B. unimprovised; bluesy figures
C. bluesy; syncopation
D. written; improvisation
Question 25 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: For jazz drummers of the 1940s, 50s and 60s, the single most common function of the right hand was to play:
A. ride cymbal
B. high-hat
C. snare drum
D. crash cymbal
Question 26 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: The snare drum is usually played by the drummer's:
A. right foot
B. right hand
C. left foot
D. left hand
Question 27 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: CHING CHING CHING CHING is an example of:
A. a snare pattern
B. a bass drum pattern
C. a ride cymbal rhythm
D. a clave pattern
Question 28 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: The bass drum is usually played by the drummer's:
A. right foot
B. right hand
C. left foot
D. left hand
Question 29 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: A collection of a snare drum, bass drum, tom tom, hi-hat and ride cymbals would be called:
A. a front line
B. a rhythm section
C. a chorus
D. a drum kit/set
Question 30 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: Rhythmic contrast is prominent in jazz and can be achieved by:
A. syncopation
B. polyrhythms
C. taking a single rhythm and placing it over different beats
D. all of the above
Question 31 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: The musician usually called “the father of stride piano” is:
A. Bix Beiderbecke
B. Fats Waller
C. James P. Johnson
D. Earl Hines
Question 32 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: In New Orleans collective improvisation, the trombone most often plays:
A. low harmony parts and glissandi
B. the melody
C. a high counter-melody
D. stride
Question 33 True / False (2 points)
Question: Early drummers were often restricted to playing on woodblock or cowbell because the recording apparatus could not handle loud percussion sounds.
True
False
Question 34 True / False (2 points)
Question: “Boogie Woogie” is another name for stride piano.
True
False
Question 35 True / False (2 points)
Question: Earl Hines' right-hand approach is often called “trumpet style”.
True
False
Question 36 True / False (2 points)
Question: The first jazz recordings were made by the Red Hot Peppers.
True
False
Question 37 True / False (2 points)
Question: Scat singing was popularized by Louis Armstrong.
True
False
Question 38 True / False (2 points)
Question: Bix Beiderbecke's tone was more brassy than Louis Armstrong's.
True
False
Question 39 True / False (2 points)
Question: The rhythmic feeling of early jazz is stiffer than that of ragtime.
True
False
Question 40 True / False (2 points)
Question: Jack Teagarden and Kid Ory were known for playing trombone.
True
False
Question 41 Fill in the Blank (2 points)
Question: The piano style that alternates low bass notes with mid range chords is called __________ Style.
Question 42 Fill in the Blank (2 points)
Question: “Trumpet style” right hand is most associated with early jazz pianist ____________________. (Fill in first and last name.)
Question 43 Fill in the Blank (2 points)
Question: The first jazz recordings were made in the year __________ by the Original Dixieland Jazz band.
Question 44 Fill in the Blank (2 points)
Question: JITTERBUG WALTZ, HONEYSUCKLE ROSE and AIN'T MISBEHAVIN' were written by pianist __________. (Fill in first and last name.)
Question 45 Fill in the Blank (2 points)
Question: Sidney Bechet was a significant soloist on two instruments, the soprano saxophone and the __________.
Question 46 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: Which guitarist played with Louis Armstrong on “Hotter Than That”?
A. Eddie Lang
B. Tom Patitucci
C. Lonnie Johnson
D. Carlos Santana
Question 47 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: Most jazz fails to qualify as popular music if “popular” is defined in terms of record sales because:
A. popular music doesn't swing
B. jazz records ordinarily sell millions of copies
C. popular music is rarely improvised
D. jazz records ordinarily sell poorly
Question 48 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: To improvise is to __________ and __________ simultaneously.
A. perform; swing
B. swing; compose
C. compose; perform
D. read; swing
Question 49 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: To a musicians' contractor, “jazz saxophone” means:
A. a swinging saxophonist
B. an improvising saxophonist
C. lead sax player
D. bluesy saxophone playing
Question 50 Multiple Choice (2 points)
Question: Jelly Roll Morton and Thomas “Fats” Waller both played:
A. the cornet
B. the drums
C. the trumpet
D. the piano
E. a Fender Stratocaster