E1. In a flume, a wave travels towards upstream direction. How do you classify the flow in this flume? Explain reasons for your decision?

E2. When a smooth hump is installed across a flowing flume, free surface level drops. How do you classify the initial flow? Explain the reasons for changes in flow depth near the hump using concepts of specific energy and total energy. Use the Es-Y diagram to support your explanation.

E3. When a smooth constriction is installed across a flume, free surface level drops. Explain the reasons for this free surface change using the concepts of specific energy and total energy. Use the E-Y diagram to support your explanation. Explain the difference of reasoning between this and the reasons you have given in E2.

E4. Explain the changes in flow depth when a supercritical flow flows over a smooth hump. Provide theoretical explanation to these changes using concepts of specific energy and total energy. Use the E-Y diagram to support your explanation.

E5. Explain how a supercritical flow changes to a subcritical flow. You may need to refer text books and web pages to answer this question.

E6 Water flowing in a wide horizontal open channel has a flow depth of y (m) and the velocity of v (m/s). If a hump with height h (m) (hump height is measured from the bottom of the channel) is to install across the channel, determine:

a) Froude number before the installation of the hump

b) The critical depth of the flow

c) Flow depth over the hump

Consider h = [0.07 + (3rd last numeral of the student number/100)] m

Y = [0.80+ (2nd last numeral of the student number/100)] m

v = [1.2+ (last numeral of the student number /10)] m/s

E7. A rectangular channel is (23 + n) m wide and water flows at 1.2 m/s velocity. The channel contracts smoothly to (17.5 + n) m without energy loss, where n is the last numeral of your student number.

If the flow rate is 41 m3/s, what is the depth and flow velocity in the channel contraction?