critique for each reflectionwrite a critique for each reflection each critique would be between 6-7 lines. there are 3 refluction
This chapter by Mayer (2008), is concerned with the notion of teaching by giving productive feedback. Starting by the law of effect that was explained as a theory by Thorndike, in which after something was being exposed to the same situation repeatedly, the resulted action is described in this statement by Thorndike “the greater the satisfaction or discomfort, the greater the strengthening or weakening of the bond” (Mayer, 2008, p. 263). Associating this law with the theory of Skinner regarding radical behavior and having the reinforce controlling the behavior, Mayer (2008) indicated that Skinner’s box theory has influenced Thorndike’s in many ways. This chapter clearly is connected with Driscoll’s (2005) previous chapter in which radical behavior was discussed extensively. In this chapter though, Mayer (2008), is clearly concerned with how to use this way of classroom management in favor of learning? Rewarding the students for behaving well in the class or for active participation will be concerned as positive reinforcement, but the cognitive theory considers feedback as “information that the learner uses in building a plan for responding” (Mayer, 2008, p. 274). These two theories are approaching feedback in classroom differently, and the shortcoming of the behavior theory is that learners are not aware that learning is taking place when they receive the reinforcement (Mayer, 2008). On the other hand, the cognitive theories are dealing with feedback as something learners will interrupt in their own way with relation to their learning and that will enable them to think ahead before responding (Mayer, 2008). Different factors may affect the given feedback such as quality and duration. Mayer (2008), indicated that it is not the feedback that changes the behavior of the learners, it is how learners understand and interpret this feedback that will have the final say in changing their behavior. I would say that this notion is entirely true, and students are in control of their learning when feedback is delivered to them in the form of a completion to their learning rather than just a simple reward.
In the chapter 3, Driscoll explains that the cognitive models of information retrieval are behavioral models that address the information retrieval (IR) from the perspective of cognitive processes at work during the activity. Models focus either on the user, or the interaction between the user and the system. Depending on the activity of storage information are sense memory, short memory and long memory as illustrated by author. Also, the author outlined how the information is transferring from the sense memory to short memory and from short memory to long memory.
Sense memory (Instant memory) is a direct reflection of the image information, perceived by the senses. Its last for a few seconds. I mean a person can remember thing only in the time of happening. Sense memory consists of visual and auditory. Visual Lasts less than auditory. Instant or sense memory of it gets only the information that is in line with present needs and interests of people attracted his attention. The brain does not absorb a huge number of things of what the eye see in the same time. Instant memory designed to store information for a short and limited period of time required to perform an action or operation. For example, display 20 pictures and ask students to tell what the pictures are. Absolutely, students will not remember all pictures and they will miss a lot of them. However, when scientists used a Partial method, it was very effective than the whole method. Now, when I display 20 pictures as a partial, students will remember most of the pictures. The same happened with auditory. In partial method, students focus their attention on the small amount of displaying information. The author said a Person has a control in getting and selection information. A person could get information if it was meaningful for him even if he was among noise and crowded. He dominated his attention to get certain information.
Short-term memory stores information for a short period. In contrast with a long-term memory. For example, a student who reserves and store an information In order to test, after a while he will forgot these information, but he could recall some. In the case of forgetting an information after a while of exam , the information was stored in short-term memory. While, in the case retrieving the information, the information was stored in a long-term memory. In brief, a short-term memory stores for a short time. The volume of short-term memory is 5 – 9 units of information and is determined by the amount of information that a person is able to accurately reproduce after a single presentation. The major feature of short-term memory is its selectivity.
Long-term memory capable of storing information for a virtually unlimited period. In practice, the operation of long-term memory is usually associated with thinking and volitional efforts. It is obvious that the human impact on this type of memory is very limited (if at all possible) and there is (but not always) the possibility of its multiple playback.
For the preservation and reproduction of visual images is responsible visual memory. It is directly linked to the imaginative: that people can visually imagine, it is usually easier to remember and reproduce. Auditory memory – remembering this is a good and accurate reproduction of a variety of sounds, such as music, speech. Special kind of verbal memory is verbal-logical, which is closely linked with the word, thought and logic. Motor memory is a storage and preservation, and if necessary with sufficient precision playback of multiple complex movements. She is involved in the formation of motor skills. A striking example of motor memory is handwritten reproduction of text, implying, as a rule, automatic writing once studied characters.
In the chapter 3, Driscoll explains about the “cognitive information processing (CIP)” with computer metaphor expression. Instead of using the concept “stimulus and response” in behaviorism cognitive psychologists use “input and output” concept. According to Driscoll, behaviorists do not ignore cognitive process, so Tolman mentioned as a purposive behavior and Pavlov state “second signal system”
According to the view of CIP in this chapter, there are stages for influx information processing in cognition. First stage of those is sensory memory that recognizes information with sense for a very short time in the memory. Second stage is working memory that received information can be stored for a short time in the memory. This is a previous stage before going the long-term memory. It can hold a little information at once at a time. The third stage is the long-term memory, which can store information for permanently.
When learning occurs, learners experience the similar stages. In the information processing system, some features that influence in the sensory memory are selective attention, automaticity and the ability to control attention. There is a further process is called pattern recognition that are template matching, prototype model and feature analysis. To become more meaningful and permanent memory, received information should go to the working memory. Information can be hold for a short time by rehearsal and encoding. Then final stage the information goes is the long term memory (LTM). Tulving (1972) distinguished the difference of episodic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory is “memory for special events” and semantic memory is “for general information stored in memory”
Retrieving stored information can be explained by network models of LTM, feature comparison models of LTM, preposition models of LTM and parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of LTM. Limitation of each model resulted in developing the other model trying to explain how stored information is retrieved from LTM. Researchers conclude that learning occurs more effectively when verbal and imaginary aids are used to instruction. Forgetting is also very important element in learning. Forgetting usually occurs when failing to retrieve and failing to encode.
According to Driscoll, instructors can increase learning by applying to CIP in teaching such as providing organized instruction, arranging extensive and variable practice.
While I am reading this chapter, elaborative encoding is necessary to comprehend difficult knowledge. One of the methods is using mnemonics. Here is a example. I heard a story from my professor that she taught teachers to understand some difficult concepts using mnemonics. She created an interesting story using those difficult concepts. Teachers seemed to understand those concepts so she was satisfied. Later, my professor asked teachers to write down the concepts in the exam. Most of teachers wrote about the story, not exact explanation of the concepts. Every learner has preference of using a certain strategy. I think we should provide various strategies to learners and help them to use strategies effectively as a instructor.